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Friday, February 7, 2020 | History

5 edition of The logical syntax of language found in the catalog.

The logical syntax of language

Rudolf Carnap

The logical syntax of language

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  • 27 Currently reading

Published by Routledge & K. Paul in London .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Grammar, Comparative and general -- Syntax.,
  • Logical positivism.,
  • Logic, Symbolic and mathematical.

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby Rudolf Carnap.
    GenreSyntax.
    SeriesInternational library of psychology, philosophy and scientific method, International library of psychology, philosophy, and scientific method
    ContributionsSmeaton, Amethe.
    The Physical Object
    Paginationxvi, 352 p. ;
    Number of Pages352
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL22990735M

    They do not refer to states of affairs and the things they denote cannot be perceived. At the moment it is under heavy construction. Miller has no son, then although the letter may still contain the expression "the son of Mr. Partee, F.

    Such a sentence 'Q1 a ' can then be translated into the syntactical sentence 'Q2 'a' ' which attributes the quality Q2 to a designation of that object. Symbols of a formal language must be capable of being specified without any reference to any interpretation of them. But if, as obviously is the fact in the case of the word thing, the syntactical rules for the combining of it with others are dictated by the empirically observed relations between the real entities to which we have tacked this and the other words, then these "syntactical rules," as well as the more particular sentences from which they are then generalizations, are in truth sentences formulating relations between real entities; and these sentences, if presented in the formal mode of speech, should then be described as quasi-objective sentences of the formal mode of speech. He takes the sentence "The rose is a thing," and offers as translation of it into the formal mode the sentence "The word 'rose' is a thing- word. Furthermore, practical elements like simplicity and fruitfulness in certain tasks influence the choice of a language.

    To sum up now the argument of this section: Carnap contends: a that the truth of "the word rose is a thing-word" can be ascertained by only considering to what syntactical kind the word rose belongs; b that "the word rose is a thing-word" is a translation of "the rose is a thing"; and c that the truth of "the rose is a thing" can therefore be established without observing any rose, and merely by syntactical analysis. In this view, probability is a basic concept anchored in all inductive inferences, whereby the conclusion of every inference that holds without deductive necessity is said be more or less likely to be the case. I argue that its modified version is immune to the previous challenges, and, to some extent, immune to new challenges as well. Key Terms lexicon: The sum total of all words in a language. Carnap was convinced that there was a logical as well as an empirical dimension in science. Let us first be clear as to the kinds of sentences Carnap designates by those names.


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The logical syntax of language book

Let us first be clear as to the kinds of sentences Carnap designates by those names. In this dissertation on the philosophical foundations of geometry, Carnap tried to provide a logical basis for a theory of space and time in physics. They are meaningful because they are based on the perceptions of the senses.

At the same time he worked with the concepts of intension and extension and took these two concepts as a basis of a new method of semantics. I do not now propose to go into its merits, but a word seems in order concerning what Carnap calls "psychologism," viz. It obviously does not have the same connotation; and as regards denotation, whereas the word Africa does orient the attention of English-speaking readers or hearers to a specific region of the earth's surface, the expression given does not do this even if the author's name appears on the book and much less if the book happens to be anonymous.

Carnap, it is true, asserts that even if Mr. At the moment it is under heavy construction. Because those sentences cannot be verified in any way, Carnap suggests that science, as well as philosophy, should neither consider nor contain them.

Clearly, the probability of a statement about relative frequency can be unknown; because it depends on the observation of certain phenomena, one may not possess the information needed to establish the value of that probability. What is true is only that there is a systematic parallelism of truth-value between two sentences so related; but although if a sentence is a translation of another such parallelism is present, the converse does not hold.

The set of characters labelled thing, however, happens to be a part of the set labelled rose; and therefore if we have already observed that a given entity possesses the set of characters labelled rose, we can show, merely by analysis of what we have already observed, i.

They are empirical and, therefore, must be based on experimental procedures and the observation of relevant facts. It is worth noting, moreover, that from the formal-mode sentence, "This letter contains a sentence in which occurs the description 'the son of Mr. Carnap believed that the difficulty with traditional philosophy lay in the use of concepts that are not useful for science.

For another, a sentence is factual if one can clearly state what are the observations that could confirm or disconfirm that sentence. In the last twenty-five years it has gained momentum with the formulation of Montague semantics and Generative Syntax, and the subsequent diversification of research programs.

The definitions included in the calculus state the conditions under which a sentence can be considered of a certain type and how those sentences can be transformed. In other words, these pseudo-problems concern statements that do not, in any way, have empirical implications.

Make a moving appeal expressive and then ask for a contribution directive. English translationThe Logical Syntax of Language.

They are really pseudo-propositions; that is, they seem to express a judgment or assertion, but in fact express only a command or an emotional attitude. Thomason, R. That implies that formal languages are constructed and that everyone is free to choose the language it finds more suited to his purpose.

But he also and more deliberately and often refers to logical syntax as the theory of a particular sort of subject, viz. Every comparison evaluates to one of the two - and the comparisons negation evaluates to the opposite one. Carnap, whose socialist and pacifist beliefs put him at risk in Nazi Germanyemigrated to the United States in and became a naturalized citizen in Indeed, the Aufbau suggests that epistemology, based on modern symbolic logicis concerned with the logical analysis of scientific propositions, while science itself, based on experience, is the only source of knowledge of the external world, i.

Context is how everything within language works together to convey a particular meaning. I recommend searching at bookfinder.logic of science. 2See, for example, the essays in Wagner (). The essays by Uebel and Awodey and Carus set the general historical context for Logical Syntax, while the remaining essays focus on more specific aspects.

3In what follows I will abbreviate ‘The Logical Syntax of Language’ as ‘Logical Syntax. Philosophy Introduction to Logic Common Forms and Functions of Language Abstract: The Note the subtle transition from vocal behavior to body language from saying for example, "Hi" or "How are you?" to a nod or a wave of the hand.

4. Most of the examples we have been talking about are not merely of academic interest, even though we. mentations of logic programming languages mostly just print the substitu-tion for the unknowns in the original goal, in this case R = s(s(z)).

Some terminology of logic programming: the original goal is called the query, its unknowns are logic variables, and the result of the computation is. Caliban Books Some good news (August ): Open Court has decided to reprint two of Carnap's most important works, The Logical Syntax of Language and The Logical Structure of the World.

These new editions are quite reasonably priced, and both appear to be in stock at the usual on-line bookstores. Logic of language's method of verification. That is not the only use made of examples -- i.e.

to teach the meaning of common names.

Syntax (logic)

Giving examples (or counter-examples) is also logic's method of verification -- i.e. of testing whether the grammatical account (description of the use of a word or group of words in our language) we have given is true or false. Established inthe MIT Press is one of the largest and most distinguished university presses in the world and a leading publisher of books and journals at the intersection of science, technology, art, social science, and design.